Network Topology

Network topology

A network topology is the arrangement of a network, including its nodes and connecting lines. There are two ways of defining network geometry: the physical topology and the logical (or signal) topology.

The physical topology of a network is the actual geometric layout of workstations. There are several common physical topologies, as described below, and as shown in the photo.

Bus Topology

Bus Topology

Bus Topology has a main connection line with two terminators at each end. This main connection line is called the bus. Each node in the network is connected to the bus individually. If data transmission is required, the sender computer sends the data to this line. Along with the data sent, there is also information about who will be the recipient. Every other computer connected to the bus checks the data flowing on the bus. Only the receiving computer receives the data. Others refrain from accepting this data.

Pros

  1. This is a simple organization so implementation of bus topology is easy and the cost is very low.
  2. The network can be easily expanded by increasing the length of the backbone bus of the network using repeaters or connectors.
  3. New computers or other equipment can be added to the network at any time.
  4. The network stays active even if the computer is disconnected from the network or the computer is damaged in any corner of the network.
  5. Devices or servers are not required in the central corner of the network.

Cons

  1. Signaling is relatively slow.
  2. If the main connection line or bus is faulty, the entire network becomes inoperable.
  3. Using this topology on large networks leads to data overload on the main connection line and signal collisions, which may require re-transmission of the signal.
  4. Even if there is a problem in another corner of the network, it is difficult to identify.

Star Topology

Star Topology

In Star Topology, each node (computer, printer, etc.) is directly connected through a hub or switch. Data transmitted through the network passes through the hub on its way to the specific device. As a result, less time is required to exchange signals. With a hub or a switch, it is easy to detect where there is a problem in the centrally controlled Star Topology network. However, when using the hub, the signal is broadcast, that is, the signal goes to all the computers connected to the hub. But when using the switch, the signal only goes to the target computer. Although different types of cables can be used in Star Topology, there is a predominance of twisted-pair cables.

Pros

  1. The signal is transmitted through a centrally connected device, so it is relatively fast.
  2. Each node transmits signals through a central device hub or switch, making signal loss less likely.
  3. A new corner can be added to the network at any time.
  4. The network remains active even if the node is disconnected from the network or the node is inactive at any corner of the network.
  5. Twisted pair cables are commonly used in this topology. However, at the same time, different types of cables such as co-axial or fiber optic cable can be used in this network.

Cons

  1. Individual wiring is required for each node, so implementation costs are higher than bus topology.
  2. The entire network becomes inoperable when the hub or switch breaks because there is no interconnection between the nodes other than the central connecting device hub or switch.
  3. The network requires a central device or server which is troublesome.

Ring Topology

Ring Topology

In ring topology, nodes form a network by connecting to each other in a circular path (the two images below carry the same meaning). As a result, there is no need for a device or server in the central corner of the network. Every computer connected to the network gets equal rights to transmit data. In this organization the signal flow is one-way and as a result, the signal collides. No. When a node sends a signal, it goes to the next node. If the signal is for that node, he accepts it himself, otherwise, he sends the nerve signal to his next node. The signal travels through the circular network until it reaches the correct node and at one stage reaches its desired node.

Pros

  1. In this organization the signal flow is one-way; As a result, the signal does not collide.
  2. Devices or servers are not required in the central corner of the network.
  3. The node cannot dominate the data transmission.
  4. The amount of cable is less required, resulting in lower implementation costs.

Cons

  1. Because computers are not directly connected to each other, one computer cannot send data directly to another computer.
  2. Signaling is relatively slow.
  3. When NAD loses the ability to re-send data to anyone connected to the network, the entire network becomes inoperable.
  4. If the corner node is disconnected from the network or the new corner node is added to the network, the entire network has to be rearranged.
  5. If there is a problem in such a network, it is very difficult to identify it.
  6. As the number of computers on the network increases, so does the time of data transmission.
  7. Complex software is required to control ring topology.

Tree Topology

Tree Topology

Tree Topology is actually an extension of Star Topology. In this organization, multiple levels of computers are connected to a central host computer or node, called a server or root node. Each level computer acts as an intermediate host computer for its next level computer. A computer that is no longer connected to a computer is called a peripheral computer. Computers in one branch can transmit signals through one or more host computers to computers in other branches. The network of tree topology can be easily expanded by creating new branches, so the use of this topology is more.

Pros

  1. The network of tree topology can be easily expanded by creating new branches at any time.
  2. It is easy to disconnect the node from the network or add a new node to the network.
  3. The network is partially operational if the intermediate host computer or peripheral computer is inactive in the corner of the network except for the root node.

Cons

  1. When the central host computer is out of order, the main network becomes out of order.
  2. When the intermediate host computer is out of order, the network also becomes partially out of order.
  3. It is more complex in nature than other typologies.
  4. Implementation costs are relatively high.

Mesh Topology

Mesh Topology:

In mesh topology, a computer is directly connected to every other computer in the network. As a result, computers anywhere in the network can exchange data directly with computers anywhere else. In such an organization, the interconnection between the computers in the network is called point-to-point link. This topology is not commonly used on computer networks due to the high cost and complex configuration of this topology.

Pros

  1. Data transmission is faster than all other topologies.
  2. The increase in the number of computers on the network does not affect the speed of data transmission.
  3. It is easy to disconnect nodes from the network or add new nodes to the network.
  4. Wherever the computer is located, the network is fully operational.
  5. Data transmission to all computers continues in alternative ways even if the connection is lost or disconnected.
  6. No device or server is required in the central corner of the network. A node can transmit data to multiple nodes at the same time.
  7. All nodes get equal rights in data transmission.

Cons

  1. This topology requires a large amount of wire, so it is expensive.
  2. Implementing and configuring this topology network is quite complex.
  3. Increasing the number of computers increases the cost a lot.

Hybrid Topology

Hybrid Topology

Hybrid Topology consists of a combination of star, ring, bus, mesh, etc. Topology. Each topology has some advantages and disadvantages. A single network topology may not be self-contained for any corner work. For this, hybrid topology is used in these cases.

Pros

  1. A topology can easily increase the range of the network.
  2. Diagnosing network problems is easy.
  3. The network may be partially operational even if the computer is down.

Cons

  1. The maintenance process of this topology is complex.
  2. The maintenance cost of this topology is relatively high.

When determining the topology, it is necessary to consider all the aspects like network purpose, real needs, user benefits, disadvantages, budget, etc.

Here are the things to look for when selecting a new network topology:

  1. Budget and amount of expenditure.
  2. The length of the wire.
  3. The network is likely to grow in the future.
  4. The type of cable used.
  5. The mutual distance of different nodes.
  6. The purpose and use of the network.
  7. The nature of the services received from the network.

Sabik Al Mahmud

There was a fascination with technology from a very young age, and perhaps that fascination is a little more than other ordinary people. From Nokia's button phones to infinity display bezel-less smartphones, everything is my favorite. Technology has never been more impressive in my life. And writing started with an interest in this technology .....

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