Computer File System | FAT, NTFS, GFX

computer file format

Ever wondered what the hard drive does to complete the data when you read or write it? Today, our hard drives can store giant-sized data, expand their storage capacity, and automatically prevent errors and boost performance. Hard drives are organized by a simple special computer file system — which the operating system automatically installs on your system. And you may have seen the FAT, NTFS file system options in the memory card, or hard drive format options, and you may be wondering, “What are these?” “What’s the difference between them?” In today’s article, I will discuss these issues in detail.

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The most well-known and most used computer file system in the computing world is FAT. Its full name is File Allocation Table and it is a file system developed by Microsoft. This file system has been around for a long time and has some updates since its arrival, such as FAT 16 and FAT 32; However, this system is basically known as FAT.

Of all the major file systems, FAT is the simplest, and almost all operating systems on earth have the ability to read this file system. It’s basically a system for sorting files by list. However, if there is a file problem on the hard drive, this system does not have the ability to fix it. The biggest disadvantage of FAT is that this format can only store one file up to 4 GB. If the size of a file is more than 4 GB, FAT cannot handle it. This format is no longer used on hard drives these days, but it is still used on memory cards or flash drives / pen drives. It is very easy to format any drive in this file system.

FAT32 was used especially on older versions of Windows operating systems; For example- Windows 95, 98 etc.


New Technology File System or NTFS is another computer file system developed by Microsoft that targets the next generation. Its structure is very complex and it is only used for Microsoft’s operating system (meaning Windows) and with Windows XP it comes to us first. It is also called a “journaling” file system, because it keeps a record of all operations on your device. And these operation records help to find any errors and recover them. Moreover, it can also recover from problems such as power failure and drive failure.

The advantage of this system is that a 16 terabyte file can be stored on this system; With it supports storage up to a maximum of 256 terabytes. Although this system is not as universal as format FAT, major operating systems can read it. This file system is primarily used on hard drives, but can also be formatted on removable media storage. However, if you format your phone’s memory card with NTFS, your phone may not support it.

However, it is better not to use it in removable media storage, as this computer file system burns a large amount of storage to keep records of operations, and as a result, removable media storage can be corrupted.


Apple has specifically improved the HFS + file system for use on their Macintosh computers. It is designed to be similar to NTFS for specifically allocating files, but these two file systems are not compatible. This file system can support up to 1 million terabytes as a file and maximum storage. It is also a journal file system, making it much easier to fix an error.

Unfortunately the Windows operating system cannot use this file system format, but Mac OS and Linux have the ability to use it.


Ext4 is currently the most widely used file system in Linux-based operating systems. This is basically the older version of EXT2 and the successful version of EXT3 where its performance has been improved using some complex techniques. It is also basically a journaling file system. It cannot be used in removable storage, it may corrupt the storage but of course it applies to hard drives.

It basically supports a file size of up to 16 TB and storage size up to 1 XB. This is also not for the Windows operating system, but Windows users can at least read this file system format using a program called Ext2Read.


ZFX is basically an enterprise-level computer file system format; It is used for more enterprise work than personal. It is especially used in server storage, where millions of users have stored data at once. Moreover, it is also known for its performance. It supports up to 16 exabytes as a file size and full storage size. It is mainly supported by Mac Server, Linux, and short Unix operating systems.

Last word

This is the most widely used file system format but not for everyone and not all work. Everyone has some importance and limitations but it depends on the use and the user. At least from this article, you will learn about different file systems and their functions and of course, it is clear what is FAT or NTFS. So which file system format do you use most of the time? Let us know in the comments section below.

Sabik Al Mahmud

There was a fascination with technology from a very young age, and perhaps that fascination is a little more than other ordinary people. From Nokia's button phones to infinity display bezel-less smartphones, everything is my favorite. Technology has never been more impressive in my life. And writing started with an interest in this technology .....

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